PIPELINE

Pipeline

Lead Indication: Ischemic Stroke

Local oxygen delivery after vascular occlusion preserves brain tissue viability and function
Acute Ischemic Stroke

Within minutes of a stroke, a severe reduction of blood flow and oxygen supply causes cell death (red) in the brain tissue surrounding the blocked blood vessel. In the immediate vicinity of the dead tissue is a hypoxic zone (green), termed the penumbra, that consists of tissue that is severely deprived of oxygen and at risk of dying. Until the occlusion is treated, the oxygen-deprived tissue in the penumbra dies (growing red area in the top schematic), resulting in neurological impairments (i.e. in speech, motor control, and cognitive function). By delivering oxygen to brain tissue affected by stroke, Omniox’s drug candidate OMX-201 delays or prevents this progressive brain tissue death, potentially saving brain tissue (blue area in the bottom schematic) and preserving brain function until recanalization of the blocked blood vessel using current Standard of Care (SOC) therapies (i.e. mechanical thrombectomy or Activase©/tPA) can be performed.

References:
  1. Baron, J.-C. Protecting the ischaemic penumbra as an adjunct to thrombectomy for acute stroke. Nat Rev Neurology. 2018; 14:325–337.
  2. Le Moan N., et al. A New Paradigm in Protecting Ischemic Brain: Preserving the Neurovascular Unit Before Reperfusion. Lapchak, Paul A., Zhang, John H. (Eds.) Neuroprotective Therapy for Stroke and Ischemic Disease. 2017; pp.641-664. New York City, NY: Springer.

Lead Indication: Immuno-oncology

Local oxygen delivery reverses multiple immunosuppressive pathways to enhance anti-cancer immune responses
Cancer Immunotherapy

The hypoxic tumor microenvironment suppresses anti-cancer immune responses by modulating multiple signaling pathways including, but not limited to, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) signaling.

Hypoxia has been shown through HIF-1 signaling to:

  1. activate PD-1/PD-L1 pathways that inhibit recruitment and activation of helper and cytotoxic T-cells (Th and Tc ) and natural killer (NK) cells, key effectors of anti-tumor responses;
  2. recruit and activate inhibitory regulatory T cells (Treg ), tumor associated macrophages (TAM) and other myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC); and
  3. directly inhibit the ability of tumor cells to be recognized by the immune system.

By delivering oxygen to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, OMX reverses these effects and stimulates an immune attack on tumor cells resulting in tumor cell death.

References:
  1. Noman MZ, et al. Hypoxia: a key player in antitumor immune response. A Review in the Theme: Cellular Responses to Hypoxia. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015; 309(9):C569-79.
  2. Melero I, et al. Evolving synergistic combinations of targeted immunotherapies to combat cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2015; 15(8):457-72.
  3. Hasan A, Mazzone M. Sixty shades of oxygen - an attractive opportunity for cancer immunotherapy. Ann Transl Med. 2015; 3(13):187.
  4. Hatfield SM et al. Immunological mechanisms of the antitumor effects of supplemental oxygenation. Sci Transl Med. 2015; 7(277):277ra30.